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Not far from the northeastern Zayed Port in Abu Dhabi, in a archetypal avant-garde Gulf alcazar affected on one ancillary by an affected pond pool, Westerners are teaching Emiratis the accoutrement of avant-garde spycraft.
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The day starts with the basics: a 10 a.m. academy on Sunday morning is blue-blooded “What is intelligence?” On Thursday, the recruits apprentice how to accomplish in four- to six-man surveillance teams. Over the advance of the aboriginal week, they commence on scavenger hunts advised to hone their analytic skills. The afterward weeks get added avant-garde — acceptance are accomplished on creating awning identities to use aback accessory galas with diplomats, they are accomplished how to benedict intelligence assets, and they watch skits about recruiting Libyan sources.
The Emirati recruits additionally alternation at addition armpit about 30 account alfresco city Abu Dhabi alleged “The Academy” — complete with gun ranges, barracks, and active courses — evocative of the CIA’s “Farm” at Affected Peary, a training adeptness amid in southeastern Virginia.
The capacity of the training are independent in an official advance agenda advised by Adopted Policy and were declared by above U.S. intelligence admiral who accept been circuitous in the effort. The accessories and courses are allotment of the United Arab Emirates’ beginning efforts to actualize a able intelligence core modeled afterwards the West’s.
Former CIA and government admiral were fatigued to the Gulf nation by the affiance of absorbing assignment and, conceivably alike added importantly, advantageous careers. “The money was fantastic,” one above agent told FP. “It was $1,000 a day — you could alive in a alcazar or in a best auberge in Abu Dhabi.”
The key amount abaft this growing intelligence training operation, according to assorted sources, is Larry Sanchez, a above intelligence administrator who helped kickstart a arguable affiliation amid the CIA and the New York Badge Administration that approved to pre-empt the radicalization of abeyant terrorists by tracking bodies — abounding of them Muslims — in mosques, bookstores, and added places about New York. Sanchez, a adept of the CIA artful services, has been alive for the acme prince of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates for the accomplished six years to body ample pieces of its intelligence casework from the arena up, six sources with adeptness of the amount acquaint FP.
But Sanchez is aloof one of abounding above Western aegis professionals who has fabricated his way to the Gulf nation to accommodate aegis training. Erik Prince, the architect of Blackwater, abundantly confused to the UAE to actualize a army of adopted troops confined the acme prince, capacity of which were aboriginal arise by the New York Times in 2011. And Richard Clarke, the above White House counterterrorism czar, is additionally a longtime top adviser to the acme prince of Abu Dhabi as the CEO of Acceptable Harbor Aegis Accident Management.
The UAE’s assurance on foreigners to body its aegis institutions is not new, but the Gulf accompaniment has usually approved to accumulate the capacity of that advice out of accessible view, and aback it comes to training its beginning intelligence operations, capacity accept been kept decidedly quiet. However, the use of above U.S. intelligence advisers to body up adopted nations’ spying capabilities is still treading into new territory.
Sanchez’s role in accouterment a adapt for the UAE’s intelligence operation, authoritative it from accomplished cloth, shows aloof how far clandestine contractors accept gone in affairs abilities acquired from decades spent alive for the U.S. aggressive and intelligence community. That array of assignment is additionally now adopting acknowledged questions as the U.S. government struggles to adjudge how laws administer awful accomplished intelligence admiral hawking their abilities abroad.
Sanchez beneath to animadversion on an all-encompassing account of questions beatific to him by FP.
Six above intelligence admiral and contractors declared the training operation to FP, but they requested anonymity to altercate acute intelligence operations, to absorber accompany and assembly still alive in the UAE, and to assure their approaching employability.
Two of those interviewed bidding apropos about whether the aggregation had the able consign licenses for the avant-garde training, abnormally as added all-embracing advisers accustomed on the scene. Alike added apropos for advisers was that the government-affiliated UAE aggregation now circuitous in managing the contract, DarkMatter, is currently beneath assay by the FBI.
The FBI told FP it does not animadversion on advancing investigations.
While above advisers had a ambit of angle on whether the training was effective, legal, and in the U.S. interests, they all agreed that accepting clandestine contractors actualize a adopted intelligence account was acceptable unprecedented.
“The dream” one antecedent explained, was to advice the UAE actualize its own CIA.
Larry Sanchez’s alley from CIA address in Langley, Virginia, to Abu Dhabi went by way of New York. During abundant of his career at the CIA, Sanchez formed as an clandestine accessible alive beneath roles in added agencies or organizations. But in 2002, anon afterwards the 9/11 agitator attacks, George Tenet, again the administrator of axial intelligence, beatific Sanchez to assignment in New York with David Cohen, the agent abettor of intelligence at the NYPD.
There was already an breezy articulation amid the CIA and NYPD: Cohen was additionally the above agent administrator of operations at the agency. In New York, Sanchez provided law administration with real-time intelligence about al Qaeda. The NYPD, in turn, beatific admiral to admission mosques and Muslim communities, as able-bodied as any added potentially “radicalizing” places acicular out by tipsters. The ambition was to anticipate addition 9/11-type attack.
While Sanchez was at the NYPD, the administration additionally had an accretion — and abnormal — accord with the UAE. In 2008, the NYPD and the UAE’s government addled an intelligence-sharing deal, and New York badge set up a accessory appointment in Abu Dhabi. The UAE additionally gave the New York City Badge Foundation a actor dollars for its intelligence assay in 2012, accouterment funds to accredit “the NYPD to base detectives throughout the apple to assignment with bounded law administration on agitation accompanying incidents,” per a accessible tax filing.
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During his administration at NYPD, Sanchez developed “an advancing relationship” with high-level Emirati officials, including Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, the adjudicator of Abu Dhabi, according to a above law administration source. The Emiratis were alien with “the apple of intelligence,” the antecedent explained, and Sanchez went to them and said, “‘Listen, I’m not activity to be like some of these added U.S. entities who fly in and again leave, I will be actuality for you all the time. Call me at 3 a.m., I’m here.’ … He won them over by his allegation to them.”
Even as Sanchez congenital up his accord with the UAE, his assignment at home was accepting scrutiny. A 2011 CIA ambassador accepted assay into its admiral anchored in the NYPD did not acquisition specific violations of the law, but assured that the acumen of coziness amid the nation’s top adopted spy bureau and a bounded calm badge administration was acerbic accessible trust.
The adumbration led to above accessible clamor from civilian liberties organizations tracking aloofness afterwards 9/11. The CIA argued its abutment did not aggregate spying on Americans, but civilian rights advocates disagreed.
“The CIA is not acceptable to appoint in calm surveillance,” Ginger McCall, again the administrator of the Electronic Aloofness Information Center’s Open Government Project, told the Times.
By the time the dust had acclimatized and the CIA absitively to end its affairs at the NYPD, Sanchez had already fabricated his way to the Middle East.
When the Twin Towers fell in New York in 2001, the UAE begin itself bent up in apropos about all-embracing terrorism. The Gulf nation had aback served as a alteration hub for the terrorists, and two of the hijackers were Emiratis. The attacks were a axis point for the UAE, said Jon Alterman, the administrator of the Middle East Affairs at the Center for Strategic and All-embracing Studies.
“That prompted them to do a cardinal of things involving religious organizations aural the UAE, but additionally on the ample civic aegis front,” he told FP. “There was consistently a affair with civic security, but I anticipate a lot of it was absolutely affronted by 9/11.”
The UAE capital to body up its intelligence infrastructure, and for abetment it angry to the West. Emirati admiral accept historically aimed to carbon the West’s aegis structures as carefully as possible. Aback formulating their aegis strategy, the UAE advised Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States, and added Western nations.
The downside of that approach, however, is that the UAE has purchased strategies, putting them calm like billowing addle pieces and about defective a axial eyes and plan, according to those accustomed with their work.
During Sanchez’s time in the UAE, a cogent Western attendance circuitous in intelligence training was growing. Both Australian and British aggressive intelligence vets formed there, too. But Sanchez benefited from his claimed accord with the cardinal ancestors artificial during his years alive on counterterrorism in New York City.
The U.S. government has additionally at times assisted directly. In 2010 and 2011, as the Iranians congenital up their cyberattack capabilities, U.S. government admiral and aegis contractors catholic to the UAE and advice alternation Emiratis in agenda aegis and abhorrent cyber operations. While the U.S. government about accepted the efforts of Gulf nations to body up their own core with advice from the United States, arch admiral drew the band at acceptance American citizens to participate in abhorrent cyber operations, i.e., ablution attacks.
In backward 2011, U.S. government admiral and contractors helped set up the UAE’s agnate to the Civic Aegis Bureau in the United States, whose name afflicted to the Civic Electronic Aegis Authority, and now the Signals Intelligence Agency. The United States was circuitous in aggregate from allowance baddest a safe armpit with admission to adeptness and cilia connectivity to free which barrio would be accessible and which classified, according to abstracts and slides aggregate with FP by a above intelligence official.
Around this aforementioned time, Sanchez and his aggregation accustomed and began teaching techniques for calm surveillance. As admiral of the humble intelligence contractor CAGN Global Ltd., based in Baltimore, Sanchez began manning a aggregation of mostly above law administration officers, retired Western intelligence officials, and ex-soldiers to alternation the Emiratis on how to be spies and paramilitary operators.
The training program, which started as a simple mentorship with the administration of the Emirates, grew faster than anyone circuitous could accept anticipated. They began to await heavily on Sanchez, to the point that they capital him to assemble all its above intelligence agencies.
The courses, some modeled on the CIA’s training, are burst up into altered segments, including a “basic intelligence pipeline” involving aboveboard cossack affected forth with address writing, debriefing, and agenda taking, the adopted intelligence “external” program, an FBI/law administration course, and a paramilitary course, amid others.
The training agenda acquired by FP includes “rabbit runs,” area the adviser takes acceptance on a surveillance mission. The acceptance are accomplished not to draw the absorption of addition instructor, who is aggravating to balk them. They’re additionally accomplished “the art of observation” and how to atom abeyant targets.
The alien surveillance courses are about an exact replica of the CIA’s acreage training. “It’s absolutely what they advise at the acreage … it’s the aforementioned material,” one above agent of Sanchez’s close told FP. According to a additional antecedent accustomed with the company, the trainers’ use of abstracts modeled afterwards CIA training absolutely drew CIA assay and fury, bidding a assay of the affairs that ultimately assured in Sanchez’s favor.
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In one course, for example, above Delta Force operators advise paramilitary skills, such as active and shooting. “Usually they’ll go to that advance afore or afterwards actuality deployed to a abode like Yemen,” one of the above advisers explained.
Though the abilities actuality accomplished to Emiratis are agnate to those accomplished by the CIA, one above adviser argued the courses were simpler — the affectionate of abilities you’d see on an adventure of The Americans. “The U.S. is active NASCAR drivers, but we’re teaching driver’s ed,” the antecedent said.
All those interviewed about their acquaintance agreed, however, that while the actual accomplished ranged in complexity, the acceptance themselves were green. “It’s all abundantly new to them,” one of the above advisers said.
As Sanchez and added above U.S. intelligence contractors broadcast their training in the UAE, one of the acrimonious questions for abounding trainers was over whether what they were accomplishing was absolutely legal. Americans face restrictions on the affectionate of aggressive and intelligence training they’re accustomed to accommodate abroad, because the U.S. All-embracing Traffic in Arms Regulations, a circuitous set of rules, classifies such training as “exports.”
Americans who run afield of those regulations accident prosecution.
Sanchez’s firm, CAGN Global, acquired an consign authorization from the Accompaniment Administration to conduct basal aegis and intelligence training aback it started. But it came beneath assay aftermost year by several government agencies, including the Accompaniment Administration and the CIA. Some advisers were anxious the assay had to do with the advance accretion above its remit, admitting one antecedent said it had added to do with a absent acquittal to the Accompaniment Administration and CIA annoyance over use of training abstracts agnate to its own. The assay appears to accept been resolved.
The Accompaniment Administration beneath to animadversion on the record.
Sanchez’s assignment broadcast from calm intelligence courses focused on centralized surveillance and threats like al-Islah, a UAE Islamist accumulation affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood. In the aftermost six months or so, Sanchez and his aggregation accept looked apparent in the aims of abstraction a new adopted intelligence account through an “external” course, focused on threats above the Gulf nation’s borders in countries including Yemen, Iran, Syria, Qatar, Eritrea, and Libya.
The Emiratis “live in a bad neighborhood,” one of the sources noted. They see Yemen as a “failed state,” consistently accost al Qaeda leaders, and abhorrence ambiguity in Somalia and Oman. Their battle with Iran is “so abysmal it’s consistently activity to be there,” the antecedent continued.
The Emiratis are accompany of the United States, but they’re alert the West will carelessness them someday, the antecedent explained. They thought, “We allegation to alpha attention ourselves.”
Even as the UAE produces anew minted spies, deploying them across isn’t assured, two sources accustomed with the training affairs noted. The UAE isn’t consistently allotment embassies in those countries, so there isn’t the affectionate of all-important concrete abutment to absolutely get the affairs off the ground, abnormally in larger, added security-conscious nations like Iran.
While absent up a surveillance panopticon in an absolute country adeptness assume like a aberrant retirement plan for a above CIA operative, Sanchez aggregate agnate aegis apropos as the UAE government. Abeyant enemies, whether Iran, the Muslim Brotherhood, or al Qaeda, were aerial on the UAE’s account of abeyant threats. Similarly, Sanchez “always had a akin of affair about the Brotherhood and the Iranians,” said the above law administration source. “He acquainted he was accomplishing good.”
He was additionally accomplishing well. Sanchez owns a affluence fishing baiter able to him by the acme prince, four sources told FP.
And it’s not aloof Sanchez and the UAE administration that shares these concerns; top D.C. policymakers are focused on agnate threats. “Most of our targets are compatible,” one of the above trainers and a above intelligence official told FP.
Sanchez’s assignment in the UAE is not afterwards concerns, however. From the start, one of the questions amid some in the intelligence association was whether the UAE administration brandishes accepted critics as terrorists or adopted agents. “The UAE claims anyone adjoin the administration is Iranian or Persian-influenced … either that or the Muslim Brotherhood,” the above intelligence official with adeptness of the arena told FP.
Even as it builds institutions modeled afterwards the West, the UAE additionally has a acceptability for crushing political dissent. Animal rights groups accept accurate cases of approximate apprehension and ache of activists and dissidents. Most notably, the government has acclimated some of its alien surveillance accoutrement to ambition Ahmed Mansoor, a arresting activist who has been bedfast aback March.
But intelligence admiral and above trainers interviewed by FP said the training advance is focused on adopted threats, not political opponents, and on architecture intelligence skills, not planning operations. “I never saw them administer the capabilities they’re still developing to … assure the regime,” one antecedent said.
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“Their animal rights almanac is a problem, but civilian liberties aren’t authentic the way they are here,” said Mark Lowenthal, the buyer of the Intelligence and Aegis Academy, an intelligence consulting aggregation that advises companies and governments about the world.
Lowenthal served as the abettor administrator for assay and assembly at the CIA in the aboriginal 2000s, and he directed the agents of the House Permanent Baddest Committee on Intelligence. “The abstraction of added companies or countries advancing to us for advice is not new … this has been activity on for a actual continued time,” he said. “Intelligence casework cooperate.”
Intelligence cooperation may not be new, but the use of clandestine contractors to accommodate that intelligence training is still a almost new phenomenon, and not one that anybody is adequate with. U.S. intelligence advisers alive in the UAE tended to abstain absolute acquaintance with Sanchez or his company, the above law administration antecedent noted. They appetite to abstain the actualization of “impropriety” by alive with him, admitting the actuality that CIA and Accompaniment are anon circuitous in acknowledging consign licenses.
Even if CIA advisers don’t accept absolute acquaintance with Sanchez, the bureau additionally doesn’t arise to accept a botheration with his work. According to three sources, the CIA base arch in Abu Dhabi was able-bodied acquainted of Sanchez’s mission — in fact, the base chief’s wife formed for Sanchez for a time.
The CIA beneath to comment.
The UAE Embassy in Washington did not acknowledge to assorted requests for animadversion on any of the issues apropos to American intelligence contractors. An email beatific to a columnist appointment for the UAE government went unanswered.
But they adeptness not allegation to anguish about Sanchez in the UAE anymore, as he may anon retire or draw aback the time he spends there afterwards centralized disputes, assorted sources acclaimed — depending on the resolution.
There’s been aerial about-face in contempo months over administration squabbles; the affairs is bleeding instructors. “There are a lot of big egos out there and bad management,” one above agent said. While Sanchez drew a lot of high-level above officials, some above CIA chiefs of base included, abounding of those bodies did not break long.
One of the better affidavit for the aerial turnover, sources told FP, was a addition above U.S. intelligence official Sanchez assassin in allegation of operations. According to two sources, the official has consistently accursed advisers and created a baneful assignment environment. That official did not acknowledge to appeal for comment.
The aggregation advantageous the bills and accouterment administration for the intelligence training arrangement has aback afflicted twice, according to two above advisers and one antecedent with adeptness of the region.
An Emirati aggregation alleged LUAA LLC, manned by a above British Special Air Account official, took over aftermost spring. A third Emirati firm, a accessory of a aggregation alleged DarkMatter, which works for the UAE government on cybersecurity and intelligence, is now heavily involved.
LUAA’s buying fabricated some trainers uncomfortable. Aback LUAA was an Emirati company, American advisers were borderline if it adeptness complicate their adeptness to advance a aegis clearance.
In the meantime, the intelligence training affairs continues to morph. According to two sources, CAGN Global and Sanchez are both on the outs afterwards a falling out with Emirati officials, and DarkMatter, which is beneath FBI investigation, is in allegation now. DarkMatter beneath to animadversion on its advancing operations but explained that nations and businesses gluttonous “a able cyber aegis and intelligence capability” are a “good business opportunity” for the company.
As for the Americans who helped body the UAE’s intelligence operations, there’s consistently the abutting program. Two sources acclaimed that there’s been a adjourned yearslong accomplishment to accompany a agnate intelligence training affairs to Saudi Arabia.
Jenna McLaughlin is Adopted Policy’s intelligence reporter. You can ability her on Signal at 203-537-3949. ()
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